National Referendums on EU Issues: from Clarification to Frustration
The recent succession of referendums that led saying “no to Europe” is leading to a radicalisation of political debate over the articulation between national democratic choices and belonging to the EU. This Policy Paper by Yves Bertoncini analyses the national referendums on the EU.
The progressive shift from conciliation to contradiction, then from contradiction to confrontation, should prompt us to highlight which political conditions enable a better juncture between national referendums and European integration, not only to guarantee the smooth functioning of our democracies, but also the European Union’s ability to act effectively and legitimately.
1. National referendums on European issues reflect an often harmonious conciliation
2. Negative referendums on “indivisible” European issues reflect a structural contradiction between national democracies
3. The referendums of the “third type” are hopeless tools of confrontation between the EU member states
This Policy Paper is the revised and extended version of an article published in « Le Rapport Schuman sur l’Europe, l’état de l’Union 2017 » (edited by Thierry Chopin and Michel Foucher, published by Lignes de repères, March 2017).